Senin, 30 Januari 2012

Comparison of Process Management Windows, Linux and Macintosh


The process is a dynamic sustu entinitas data contain a number of instructions, the program counter, registers and stack collection that contains the memory address. Joga process can be said to be a program in execution (Program Application / Operating System) process can also be regarded as the smallest unit of work that individuals have the resources-resources and scheduled by the operating system. Thus the operating system has a very complex activity in manage all resources and provide the operating system requires a management process.
The terms relating to the System Operation :

1. Multi Programing
Said to be capable of a multiprogramming computer if the computer is able to perform tasks or run several programs simultaneously.
For that computers require an operating system that can support computers running the task multiprogramming. Computer Operating Systems that can support multiprogramming, among others: MS wondows 3.0, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT, Linux, OS / 2.
Form of multiprogramming for example:
One computer can run programs for processing EXCEL table. When processing the data with Excel, the user is playing music from a CD ROM. While improving the user documents also print the finished document. So the computer tasks that can be implemented are: the printing of documents, data processing, and music.
Program - a program that runs basically have a nature independent of a program that can run itself and not dependent by another program.
A program run at one time (one program at any instant).
For the existence of an operating system on these programs is to organize its work by setting the order (priority) and the division of time is very fast (in the order of 1 / 1 Million seconds = 1 micro-second). So as if the program - the program can be run together (is false).

2. Multiprocessing
Collection of a number of microprocessor / processors that perform one task. In this case a number of independent computer terminal can carry out tasks to complete one task.
Election Commission of data processing that is centralized in Jakarta and is accessible from all networks in Indonesia. As a super computer chess engine ever fight with Grand Master Anatoly Karpov.
Mainframe computers are large computers that contains a processor that much. As the central computer at the local telephone network in the Netherlands.
Operating system that supports multiprocessing tasks include MS Windows, Novel Netware, and Windows NT.

3. Distributed Processing / Computing
Management of many processes that can be run by a number of computers that are scattered (distributed). Operating system that runs the task distribution antaralain Amoeba, MATCH, LINUX.


Understanding the Operating System
Operating System is a collection of programs that act as intermediaries / penjalin / liaison between users, the software with computer hardware so easy to use computer systems, computer software can be used efiesien.
Basic functions of the operating system
The computer system basically consists of four main components, namely hardware devices, application programs, operating systems, and users. In a computer system, operating system begfungsi to regulate and supervise the use of the hardware used in a variety of application programs and multiple users.
The operating system serves to make the conditions so that the computer can run the computer program correctly. To avoid conflicts that occur when users use the same resource, the operating system manage which users can access a resource. Therefore, the operating system is also often called the resource allocator. One more important function of the operating system is a controller program that aims to avoid errors and unnecessary use of computers.
Commonly used operating system in use into 3 large, namely:

1. Windows
Windows XP Professional is the Windows XP operating system made specifically for desktop computers that are connected to a network with a domain that is managed by Active Directory of Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003. In addition, this version was arguably far more complete than its Windows XP Home Edition. He could be a computer server, although can only accommodate a maximum of ten clients can log in simultaneously.Windows XP Home Edition is a Windows XP operating system aimed at home users.Basically, there was no significant difference between Windows XP Home Edition with Windows XP Professional, because the basis of making the same. Differences imposed on the Windows version is the support network, where Windows XP Home Edition is not designed for systems with many users, such as Windows XP Professional.
Windows XP Media Center Edition is a version of Windows XP that such a device made specifically for Hi-Fi, and PC are placed in the sitting room. Basically, Windows XP Media Center is Windows XP Home Edition which added support as a personal video recorder (Personal Video Recorder).
Windows Vista is the name of the newest version of Microsoft Windows, the graphical operating system from Microsoft that is used on personal computers (PCs), both for home users and business, on a laptop computer, or media center.
Before it was announced by the name of Windows Vista on July 22, 2005, the operating system is better known by the codename Longhorn (derived from the name of the Longhorn Saloon, a popular bar in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada).
Microsoft launched Windows Vista on 8 November 2006 for business users, and January 30, 2007 for home users. Thus, the launch of Windows Vista is located more than five years since the launch of Windows XP on October 25, 2001.
Windows Vista is intended to be launched as a technology-based products, as a solid system that includes new technologies a high level. Many of them are technology related to how the system works, who worked behind the scenes and not visible to end users.
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition is a version of Windows XP that is devoted to the ultra-portable PCs, which are called by Microsoft with a Tablet PC. The form is minimalist as well as Personal Digital Assistants (Personal Digital Assistant or PDA), with capabilities equivalent notebook or laptop. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition is built based on Windows XP Professional, which added to the handwriting recognition feature (handwriting recognizition) better than the usual Windows XP Professional. In general, a Tablet PC is equipped with touch screen.
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is a version of Windows XP that is devoted to the processor with the x86-64 architecture. Currently, processor architecture is limited to AMD processors with AMD64 architecture as the Athlon 64 and Opteron. Intel's existing family of Intel Pentium 4 with extensions EM64T (Extended Memory 64-bit Technology), and several series of Intel Pentium M and D, as well as some variants of Intel Core family.Differences with Windows XP Professional which was previously released on dukungannnya to access more memory than 4 Gigabytes as in Windows XP before.Actually, 64-bit processors from Intel and AMD can access 16 Eksabyte memory, but Microsoft is limiting the ability of the Windows operating system is up to 16 Terabyte only.Basically, the operating system is different from other versions of Windows XP that, given a code base that is used is Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition for x64, since it uses dalah version number 5.2.3790.
Windows XP Professional 64-bit Edition for Itanium is a very limited version at all in terms of sales. However, this product supports an excellent microprocessor technology, the IA-64 used by Intel Itanium processors and Intel Itanium 2. Support provided by Microsoft is the support of all the features of the Itanium processor, but because very few applications are designed for the Itanium processor, the spread is very little product. The difference of the features of Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is support for the Itanium processor, with all its innate architecture, such as EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface), and GPT (GUID Partition Table). Although the Itanium processor is the processor with the most efficient performance, Itanium can not run programs designed for Windows XP 32-bit version and Windows XP x64 Edition. When running programs that are not designed for it, its performance was very low.
Windows XP Starter Edition is a version of Windows XP Home Edition which translated into the local language of each by using the Language Interface Pack (LIP). The language he uses also varied, ranging from Indonesian, Malay, Thailand, Turkey, Russia, India, Brazil, to the language of Latin America (Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela). According to various sources, Microsoft made Windows XP Starter Edition in order to combat the operating system GNU / Linux, because the operating system is popular in third world countries are.

2. Linux
The Linux kernel was originally written as a hobby project by Linus Torvalds Finland university students who study at the University of Helsinki, to make the Minix kernel is free and can be edited. (Minix is ​​a Unix-like learning project made for easy use and not for commercial use.) Version 0:01 issued to the Internet in September 1991, Version 0:02 on October 5, 1991.
The term Linux or GNU / Linux (GNU) was also used as a reference to the overall distributions of Linux (Linux distribution), in which included other programs supporting the operating system. Examples of these programs are web servers, programming languages, databases, desktop display (Desktop Environment) (such as Gnome and KDE), and office applications (office suite) as, KOffice, Abiword, Gnumeric. Linux distro has experienced rapid growth in terms of popularity, so it is more popular than the version of UNIX that uses a licensing system and paid (proprietary) or other free versions of UNIX that was originally rival the dominance of Microsoft Windows in a few sides.
Analysts believe the success of information technology is because Linux does not depend on the vendor (vendor independence), low operating cost, and high compatibility compared to the proprietary version of UNIX, as well as safety and stability compared with Microsoft Windows. These characteristics are also a testament to the excellence model of open source software development (open source software).
Linux supports a lot of computer hardware, and has been used in various devices from personal computers, supercomputers and Embedded systems (embedded systems), such as cellular phones (Mobile phones) and personal video recorder.

3. Macintosh
Mac OS X is the latest version of Mac OS operating system for Macintosh computers. The operating system was first issued in 2001.
The character "X" is the Roman number is ten, where this version is the successor of the previously used operating system like Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. Some people read it as the letter "X" that sounded like "ex". One of the reasons why they interpret the tradition so as to give the name of the Unix-based operating system with the suffix "x" (eg AIX, IRIX, Linux, Minix, Ultrix, Xenix).
Mac OS X Server was also released in 2001. This server version is basically similar to standardnya version, with the difference that the version of Server includes software for workgroup management and administration in large-scale computer. Examples of additional features are available for this version is the software to perform functions such as SMTP, SMB, LDAP and DNS. In addition melisensinya also different ways.
Mac OS X operating system that uses the BSD kernel so that some circles to say that Mac OS X is included in the Unix family. The interesting thing about this OS is the beauty looks that made it a role model for other desktop developers.


The operating system is controlled by the kernel in it. 
The quality of this kernel will determine the performance of the system. He literally keep things functioning, such as interface to the hardware. The kernel communicates with external devices and manage the internal components such as RAM, CPU, and hard disks. Resource use for the management capacity and processes.
To ensure the safety of the system, the kernel controls all the processes that take place.He determined, where and how long the program to access the hardware. 
Stability is achieved through the structuring resources. On the back there are the functions that we use every day, like a copy of the file system onto the hard disk.
A good performance takes the kernel to resolve access conflicts. 
For example, when two programs want to write on the hard disk at the same time. The kernel will prioritize one task and let one write programs, while other programs have to wait.

Definition and Types - Types Kernel
The kernel is a software which is a major part of an operating system. 
His duty to serve a variety of application programs to access the computer hardware securely.

1. Monolithic
A large kernel for all tasks is behind the idea of ​​monolithic. 
Responsible for managing the RAM as well as the processes and inter-process communication, offers a variety of functions to support the drivers and hardware. Windows, Linux, and MacOS X include this category.

2. Micro
An error in the kernel can cripple the entire operating system. 
Therefore, a microkernel is made very small to avoid errors and crashes. However, he still must ensure the diversity of functions so that the kernel is divided into several modules and only one that functions in kernel mode. The classic example is Mach, a component of OS X.

3. Hybrid
A combination of monolithic and microkernel called hybrid kernels. 
Kernel streamlined and added a dynamic module for other tasks. Pe ¬ nambahan part of the kernel is also done on Linux and MacOS X, but not too big to be called a hybrid.

4. Exokernel
Kernel does not provide hardware abstraction altogether, but it provides a set of libraries that provide functions to access the hardware directly or almost directly.

Comparison of kernels which are generally used by the computer right now:

1. Windows Kernel
NTOS file, the Windows kernel heart, logically divided into two layers. 
Uniquely, for performance reasons, drivers may access the hardware directly.
Windows Debugging Tools
To analyze the state of RAM when the bluescreen needed tools such as WinDbg. 
In the Microsoft website you can find and download the appropriate file.
A tool to test durability. 
Indeed designed to make mistakes under Windows, and deliberately causing crashes. Be careful in the experiment.
Management process is one of the main tasks the operating system. 
Process Explorer displays Handles make it seem relevant or dependence antarproses.
ASLR: disguise RAM address
The new processor has a width of 64 bit address bus, but since beginning to use some bits for other tasks. 
For example, the NX-Bit to prevent the execution of data (Data Execution Prevention, DEP). If the code is located in a section of RAM that is marked as "not running" still run, there will be an internal error.
This condition provides an opportunity for hackers to trigger a buffer-overrun, that is, they infect the process such as Internet Explorer to log into the system. 
If a malware settled, he can use the Windows-API to perform an action, eg ¬ to change the system configuration.
Therefore, Microsoft has been using a new kernel protection function called Address Space Load randomization (ASLR), partly in XP SP2, completely new in Windows Vista.Background, a gap of entry for hackers under Windows is a DLL, which in previous Windows versions is always loaded to the same place in RAM.
With ASLR every time the system-DLL and EXE files will be loaded into different places in RAM, malware is no longer able to achieve the relevant action system through a standard address. 
To disguise the available 256 different addresses for the RAM-manager at start.
When a DLL is loaded, it chooses a random place in RAM. 
In addition, removal of ASLR strategy has its advantages, the address can be more compressed than in previous Windows versions, so there are more vacant places adjacent.

2. Linux Kernel
Linux kernel take care of managing the command I / O, RAM management, and process.At the root level of the kernel, there are functions for controlling the termination process.
Integrity check: backup code
As an antidote, Microsoft is using Kernel Mode Code Signature (KMCS) in Vista, which only allows the device drivers with a digital signature. 
Most drivers get a signature from the Windows Hardware Quality Lab (WHQL), but developers can provide their own signature homemade code.
That requires a valid certificate. 
Author complement the digital code with a value Hash (fingerprint), giving signatures with a private key and certificate as well as adding an encrypted hash. In the effort to load a driver, Windows decrypts the hash code that exist in the de ¬ with the key in the certificate and check, whether the hash matches the program code.
Windows also check whether the relevant certificates associated with one of the major certification center that is integrated in the Windows loader and kernel. 
Vista 32 Bit mode is to check the driver signature, but different from the 64 Bit mode that allows drivers to load without a signature.
In general, kernel modules can be assigned a digital signature under Linux and MacOS X.This theory also applies to drivers, but the operating system there is no routine to check that.
MMCSS: priority video
Windows recognize the priority level from 0 to 31, where he preferred to run the service MMCSS with priority 27. 
Starting priority of 16, already is in the area of ​​realtime, meaning that other processes can not interfere.
Linux offers a more detailed scheduling priority between 0 to 99. 
For example, the multimedia demands of media-server, this distribution is better. On MacOS X the scheduler is one of the components used Mach. That Mach is much more modern than the Linux and Windows, is not only more clearly de ¬ with the division of priority from 0 to 127.Under Mac OS X is a multimedia application can even reserve a fixed portion of the CPU time for herself. Provided there is enough CPU power, it usually does not happen congestion.

3. MacOS X Kernel
Apple MacOS X kernel is compiled from two sources. 
It uses the functions of the Unix-based BSD subsystem and component of the Mach micro-kernel.
Sections address: dynamically manage
CPU 32 Bit for Windows and installed programs, provided a strong limitation in the address. 
For example, without tricks, Windows kernel should not be more than 2 GB. This becomes a problem if still needed a place for device drivers, file system cache, and stack.
For all versions of Windows up to XP, at start, RAM-Manager has determined how many places are available each component. 
But the problem, the cache becomes very large and often hit the limit. Though stack still has a lot of places, but can not allocate it.
Therefore, the address of the kernel in Vista is always dynamic. 
During the operation, he was taking care of distribution and delivery of parts depending on workload needs.Therefore, the virtual RAM can be increased, if the device drivers ask for more. Can also shrink, if the driver release.
Linux and MacOS X are not familiar with tight restrictions. 
The operating system is also often hit the limit, related to the size of the kernel. But basically every component is not restricted format. Unlike with Windows, the operating system has no fixed division of space to the kernel and drivers.
KTM: capture program crashes
If an application will perform a series of interrelated changes, he can make a KTM (Kernel Transaction Manager) and a transaction DTC (Distributed Transaction Coordinator). 
Or just make a KTM, then set the registry key file changes and transactions.
If all works fine, the program submit transactions and changes in use. 
Until this point the program can cancel the process at any time.
MacOS X and Linux kernel is also used in the transaction. 
Usually the user does not know, unless updates always fail. In both systems, there is no effect on system stability, but only show it, the transaction is not executed.

1 komentar:

  1. Cant understand the other language but thanks for this article.